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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Editorial Policy

CT&F- Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro (ISSN 0122-5383; e-ISSN 2382-4581) is an Open Access (under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License) peer-reviewed and referred international journal, published biannually by Ecopetrol S.A - Centro de Innovación y Tecnología (ICP). The objective of CT&F is to publish the achievements of scientific research and technological developments of Ecopetrol S.A. and the research of other institutions in the field of oil, gas, and alternative energy sources. The manuscripts submitted must be original and innovative, in English; and neither previously published nor simultaneously published in other journals.

CT&F Content Includes:

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH ARTICLES: documents that present in detail the original results of research projects. Document structure generally includes four important parts: Introduction, methodology, results, and conclusions.

REVIEW ARTICLES: documents that are the result of research that integrates, systemizes, analyzes, and express a review on the results of published or unpublished scientific and technological research, by giving an account of the advances and development trends. These are characterized by presenting a careful bibliographical revision of at least 50 references.

Note: Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been unpublished works, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The opinion expressed in them is the sole responsibility of the authors. The reception of a manuscript does not imply its publication; it shall be subject to various revisions and evaluations prior to publication.

Focus and Scope:

CT&F welcomes original, novel, and high-impact contributions from all the fields in the oil and gas industry like Acquisition and Exploration technologies, Basins characterization and modeling, Petroleum geology, Reservoir modeling, Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies, Unconventional resources, Petroleum refining, Petrochemistry, Upgrading technologies, Technologies for fuels quality, Process modeling, and optimization, Supply chain optimization, Biofuels, Renewable energies.

Creative Commons License, Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)

This license lets others remix, adapt, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.

Editorial Process Description:

Submission to this journal proceeds totally online, manuscripts in technical English must be submitted through 'Make a Submission' to the Editorial Board coupled with the filled form GTN-F-005 (Editorial Board Letter) for each manuscript, at least six months in advance of the following date of publication of the journal, however, CT&F receives manuscripts for its both annually editions throughout the year.

Once a manuscript is received, it is assigned a “reviser- advisor” who is a member of the Editorial Board and will follow the entire editorial process of the manuscript. Initially, the “reviser- advisor” evaluates the whole manuscript on the basis of the quality of grammar or English language, originality, scientific rigor, and concordance with the aims and scope of the journal.

Manuscripts that overcome this stage, then are sent to the external peer reviewers, CT&F has adopted the use of "double-blind” review, according to this, the author must submit (name, affiliation, and contact address) of at least 4 potential reviewers that meet with Publindex’s requirements (National  Indexation Process), which demands that the reviewers must have MSc or Ph.D. degree, without any link or relationship to the institute to which you are affiliated, and at least have published one article in the last two years about the topic in an indexed journal. The editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Referees advise the editor, who is responsible for the final decision to accept or reject the article. Manuscripts passing to publication are checked on technical aspects such as compliance with the author's information guide before be published. Below you will find a simplified diagram flow of our editorial process:


Manuscript Style Guide:

Use the following guidelines to prepare your article:

The original submission must be an editable file format, preferred word processor, as a guide you can use the template entitled CTF_manuscript_Template Please do not alter the formatting and style layouts which have been set up in this document, the paragraphs continue from here and are only separated by headings, subheadings, images, and formulae. The section headings are arranged by numbers, bold and 14 pt. following the article structure depending on your paper type (Research, Special consideration, or Review) you can choose the appropriated. The subheadings won't be numerate and must be in italic, bold, and 12 pt.

As indicated in the template, the paper should be prepared in a single-column format on A4 paper size (192mm x 262 mm). The full text must be 12 pt, on a single-spaced. Do not number pages on the front, as page numbers will be added automatically. Leave a line clear between paragraphs. All the required style templates are provided in this document with the appropriate name supplied, e.g. ‘Manuscript title’.

 On average, the manuscripts must contain 20 pages and a maximum of 10 Figures or Tables. Footnotes are not accepted.

The author must provide landline and mobile telephone numbers, and a personal email address in order to facilitate contact and process follow up.

Manuscript Structure:

  • TITLE: The manuscript´s title must concise and informative, contain the words necessary to precisely describe the main topic treated without being excessively long (14 Maximum words, 16 pt).
  • AUTHORS: Full name of all the authors. As well as the institutional affiliation, city, country, and email contact address of each. The authorship order will be given by the intellectual contributions to the development of writing. The corresponding author must be highlighted with an asterisk (*). Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of review and publication, also post-publication.
  • ABSTRACT: A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. The abstract should contain a maximum of 200 words.
  • KEYWORDS: Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Use only abbreviations firmly established in the field of research and technology.

           The authors must submit the manuscript´s Title, Abstract, and Keywords in English and Spanish

  • HOW TO CITE: Refers to the way this manuscript should be referenced in other journals or publications.
  • INTRODUCTION: It formulates the objective, scope, and impact (proposal of the hypothesis) of the work and providing an adequate background.
  • THEORETICAL FRAME OR STATE OF THE TECHNIQUE: A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction, and lay the foundation for further work.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT: It is where the authors describe the applied experimental design, and the more relevant experimental procedures or techniques necessary to obtain the results (detailed description of standard techniques must be avoided).
  • RESULTS: It presents the results that support the conclusions and scope of the manuscript. The results must be supported with statistical information if applicable (number of standard observations and deviations, amongst others), the results should be clear and concise,
  • RESULTS ANALYSIS: They must be focused on the verification of the hypothesis and its confrontation with the state of the techniques. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: It should include the institutions or persons who provided help during the research, the work, or the object of the analysis within the manuscript.
  • REFERENCES: Each of the bibliographical references (articles, books, standards, patents, etc.) that are specified in the document, results must not be referenced. The manuscript must contain at least 10 bibliographical references.
  • NOMENCLATURE: (if applicable). Supply in a separate list, the definitions of field-specific terms used in your article.
  • APPENDIXES AND ANNEX: (if applicable). The appendix presents external information that supports and is not placed in the main document but it has references, for example, theories or lays that support or explain the text of the manuscript. The appendixes must be identified with letter B.

           On the other hand, an annex is usually a standalone document that offers additional information than contained in the main document, for example, detailed calculations; tables, or computer numeric data. The annexes must be identified with letter A.

            If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as B1, B2, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (B.1), Eq. (B.2), etc.

           in a subsequent annex, Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A2), and so on. Similarly, for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

  • ABBREVIATIONS: The first time that abbreviations appear within the text, they must be placed between parentheses after the full expression. The abbreviations and symbols used must also be explained under the corresponding tables or figures.


NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS: Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAC: Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry for further information. Decimals must be separated by a period. To indicate thousands, half a space is included between the digits

MATH EXPRESSION AND CHEMICAL FORMULAE: Please submit math equations and chemical formulae as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text, the equations must be identified within parentheses and in italic on the right side of the equation.

TABLES: All tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Headings should be placed above tables, left-justified. Leave one-line space between the heading and the table. Tables must be embedded into the text as editable text and not as images. Below there is an example that authors may find useful.

  • Units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate;
  • Lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another.
  • Footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries;
  • Footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups.

Table 1. An example of a table

FIGURES: In the same way that tables the figures must be consecutively numbered into the text, the term "Figure" is used for diagrams, photographs, and graphs. The figures do not require frames. The figures must be in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch) for an acceptable print.

If a Figure or Table is based on information coming from an external source, the text must contain the whole bibliographic reference, just on the bottom side of the Figure or Table or inside the normal paper text.


Referencing is an academic convention designed to illustrate that you can collate information from various sources. Sources can be books, journal articles, newspaper reports, standards, patents, conference proceedings, web pages, etc.  

CT&F´s referencing style is an adaptation of the American Psychological Association – APA 6th edition and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers- IEEE editorial style manual, also known as the numerical system. This style uses numerical citations in square brackets to refer to a reference list at the end of the paper. Attached to this guide we provide the file of CLS code, named: “CT&F Journal Style.txt” for be using with your free reference manager Mendeley Desktop or could be linked on URL:

Just, open the Mendeley Desktop, click on View/Citation Style/More Styles, and drag and drop the CLS file code on the window and is installed automatically ready for use.

  • The numbers appear in numerical order in both the text citation and the reference list: the first reference will be [1], the second [2] and so on, list only one reference per bracketed number, use of one reference number to designate a group of references is not allowed.

NOTE: Use et al. when six or more names are given.


Your in-text citation may look like this:

Yong and Zhou [1] have built upon recent work by Nakamura [2]; Smith [3]; and Wood et al. [4].

your Reference List entry should correspond to the citation, for example:

[1] Yong, H., Zhou, Y. ‘Depairing current density in superconducting film with shear deformation’ Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 111, no. 5, March 2012, pp. 29 – 65.

  • This may appear at the end of a sentence, before the full stop or directly following the name of the author.

We recommend reviewing the references in this site:, in order to confirm the DOI.


Case [1] and Canosa [2] both investigate the use of computing power in an efficient manner. Canosa advocates a more stringent approach [2].

  • Separate references to two or more works by different authors with a comma.


Subsequent investigation confirmed these results [1, 2, 4].

  • If referring to more than two sequential references separate the first and last reference with an en dash between the square brackets.


Other researchers have questioned these findings [1] – [4].


BOOKS Elements to cite:

  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • The surname is followed by the first initials of author(s), editor(s), or name of the organization
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title: Subtitle of publication (in italics)
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)
  • Volume if relevant
  • Place of publication (City, Country): Publisher

[1] Storey, N.(2009). Electronics: a systems approach. 4th ed. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson.

[2] Fahringer, T and Scholz, B. (2003), Advanced Symbolic Analysis for Compilers: New Techniques and Algorithms for Symbolic Program Analysis and Optimisation. Berlin: Springer


  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • Author of the chapter/section (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of chapter/section
  • ‘In’ Title of book (in italics)
  • Page numbers of chapter/section
  • Surname and Initials of the author(s), editor(s) or name of the organization
  • Place of publication (City, Country): Publisher

[2] Hu, J., et al. (2006). Software Power Optimisation.  In Al-Hashimi, B. M., System-on-chip: Next Generation Electronics, pp. 289-315. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers


  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • Author (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article
  • Title of journal (in italics)
  • Volume, issue (between parenthesis), page range
  • DOI: (Digital Object Identifier) number

[4] Kanel, S. R., and Al-Abed, S. R. (2011). Influence of pH on the transport of nanoscale zinc oxide in saturated porous media, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13 (9), 4035-4047, DOI: 10.1007/s11051-011-0345-8

THESIS (B.S., M.S.) AND DISSERTATIONS (Ph.D.)  Elements to cite:

  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • Author (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Level of the thesis (B.S., M.S. or Ph.D. thesis) in round brackets
  • Faculty, University
  • Place: City of the university, Country

 [2] Kawasaki, N. (1993). Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow, M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan,


  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • Author (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of paper
  • “In” Editor first initial. Editor second initial. Editor's last name.
  • Name of event (in italics)
  • page range (between parenthesis)
  • Place: Publisher

[1] Kreifeldt, J. G. (1989). An analysis of surface detected EMG as an amplitude-modulated noise, in H. Watson, 1989 Proceedings of the International Conference of Medicine and Biological Engineering, Chicago

PATENTS Elements to cite:

  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • Author (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Patent- Number (in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

[5] Bryant, S.J. (1998). European Patent No. EP GB2322334. Munich, Germany: European Patent Office.,.


  • Author (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Standard Title (in italics)
  • Standard Number
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

 [10] American National Standard. (2009). Instrumentation Symbols and Identification, ANSI/ISA-5.1, Washington, ANSI.


  • Number of reference (from in-text citation)
  • Author/s of report
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title report (in italics)
  • Website address

[1] Reber, E. E., Michell R. L., and Carter C. J., (1988). Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere, Aerospace Corp.,


References to electronic resources are acceptable but where a printed copy exists it is preferably to reference the print version. Electronic resources should contain as much information as possible. If the address must run across more than one line, follow these guidelines:

  • Break only after a forward slash or a “dot”. • Do not split the double slash.
  • Do not split at hyphens, tildes, and so on, that are part of the address.
  • Do not introduce hyphens to break words.
  • Separating the extension is discouraged (for e.g. the HTML at the end).

Elements to cite on the basic format:

  • Number of references (from in-text citation)
  • Author (The surname is followed by first initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Available at: URL


[8] Case, J., Rajan, D. S. and Shende, A. M. Lattice. (2001). Computers for Approximating Euclidean Space, Journal of the ACM, 48(1), 110-144. [Online]. Available: cfm?id=363688&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=1141529&CFTOKEN=57117280

Attached: CT&F_Manuscript_Template


It is a brief note written by the editor-in-chief or by someone invited to make a description of the content of the issue.

Scientific and Technological Research Articles

Documents which present in detail the original results of research projects. Document structure generally includes four important parts: Introduction, methodology, results and conclusions.

Review Articles

Documents that are the result of research that integrates, systemizes, analyzes and express a review on the results of published or unpublished scientific and technological research, by giving an account of the advances and development trends. These are characterized by presenting a careful bibliographical revision of at least 50 references.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.