Provenance and diagenesis from two stratigraphic sections of the lower cretaceous Caballos formation in the upper Magdalena valley: Geological and reservoir quality implications
The Aptian-Albian Caballos Formation is a proven reservoir in the oil producing basins of the Upper Magdalena Valley and Putumayo (Colombia), characterized by wide variation in its petrophysical properties. Integrated provenance, diagenetic and basic petrophysical analyses are presented from two stratigraphic sections of the Caballos Formation in the Upper Magdalena Valley (Ocal and Cobre creeks) in order to test regional geological models, and to relate compositional and diagenetic factors with the reservoir quality.
Sandstones from the Caballos Formation document a change from texturally immature- subarkoses, litharenites to quartz arenites. High quartz contents, the presence of feldspar, sedimentary, metamorphic and volcanic lithic suggest mixed provenance, with a major contribution from sedimentary sources. U-Pb dating of detrital zircons reveals age populations that include contributions from Precambrian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic rocks. These data, together with the compositional trends, suggest that source areas likely include adjacent massifs from the eastern segment of the Upper Magdalena Valley with similar compositional andtemporal characteristics (Garzón and Macarena Massifs for the southeastern Ocal Section, and the Upper Magdalena Valley massifs and the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera; Ocal Section). The changes in compositional features and detrital geochronology between the upper and lower members of both sections suggest a change in source areas, associated with the erosion and depletion of adjacent uplifts, and the increasing dominance of more distal eastern and western sources, which reflect the end of tectonic instability and the deepening of the basin.
The presence of quartz, feldspar, and lithic rock fragments have a major impact on the porosity and permeability of Caballos Formation sandstones. Porosity values are lower in the lower member of the Caballos Formation where diagenesis has altered abundant feldspar and lithic rock fragments to authigenic porefilling clays. Higher porosity and permeability values found in the upper member of the Caballos correspond to a combination of higher quartz contents and the dissolution of meta-stable components during late diagenesis.