Lithofacies analysis and depositional environment of the Galembo member of La Luna formation

  • Efrain Casadiego Quintero Universidad Industrial de Santander
  • Carlos Alberto Ríos Reyes Universidad Industrial de Santander
Keywords: Galembo Member, La Luna Formation, Shales, Lithofacies, Depositional environment

Abstract

The Cretaceous La Luna Formation at the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin is a classic shale-gas system in which the rock is the source, reservoir, and seal. It was deposited in a deep water marine environment with little oxygen in the sea floor. The Galembo Member comprises several lithofacies dominated by finegrained (clay- to- silt-size) particles. Five lithofacies are recognized based on mineralogy, fabric, fossil content and texture: (1) nonlaminated to slight laminated foraminifera wackestones, (2) moderate to well-laminated highly fossiliferous claystones rich in organic matter; (3) claystones with fossiliferous carbonate concretions with pyrite; (4) nonlaminated siliceous and fossiliferous claystones; (5) ash falls. 

Each facies contains abundant pyrite and phosphate. Carbonate concretions are also common.  The fossil content shows a predominantly deep marine paleoenvironment of deposition. Minor changes can generate variations in the relative proportion of terrigenous material, precipitation of organic matter and
diagenetic alterations. Its deposition is estimated to have occurred over a 25- m.y. period, and despite the variations in sublithofacies, sedimentation style remained remarkably similar throughout this span of time. 

References

Abdel-Rahman, A.Y.A. (2013). Thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential of Jurassic sediments, Northeastern Sinai, Egypt. Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 18(2), 183-190.

Aguilera, R.C., Sotelo, V.A., Burgos, C.A., Arce, C., Gómez, C., Mojica, J., Castillo, H., Jiménez, D. & Osorno, J. (2009). Organic geochemistry atlas of Colombia: An exploration tool for mature and frontier basins. Earth Sci. Res. J., 13, Special Edition, 1-174.

Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH) (2008). Colombian Sedimentary Basins: Nomenclature, boundaries and petroleum geology, a new proposal, 92p.

Arthur, M. A., Schlanger, S.O. & Jenkyns, H.C. (1987). The Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event II, paleoceanographic controls on organic matter production and preservation. In: Brooks, J. & Fleet, A. (Eds) Marine Petroleum Source Rocks. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 24, pp. 399- 418.

Ballesteros, C.A. & Parra J.A. (2012). Estudio estratigráfico secuencial para la Formación La Luna en el costado oriental de la Cuenca del Valle Medo del Magdalena: Una visión exploratoria de hidrocarburos no convencionales. Undergraduate Thesis, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 112p.

Bersezio, R., Erba, E., Gorza, M. & Riva, A. (2002). Berriasian- Aptian black shales of the Maiolica Formation (Lombardian Basin, Southern Alps, Northern Italy): local to global events. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 180, 253-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00416-3

Bralower, T.J. & Lorente, M.A. (2003). Paleogeography and Stratigraphy of the La Luna Formation and Related Cretaceous Anoxic Depositional Systems. Palaios, 18, 301-304. https://doi.org/10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0301:PASOTL>2.0.CO;2

Casadiego, E. (2014). Caracterización de reservorios de gas shale integrando datos multiescala: Caso estudio Miembro Galembo, Sección Aguablanca, Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena. Undergraduate Thesis, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Catuneanu, O. (2006). Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 375p.

Chalmers, G.R.L., Ross, D.J.K. & Bustin, R.M. (2012). Geological controls on matrix permeability of Devonian Gas Shales in the Horn River and Liard basins, northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Int. J. Coal Geol. 103, 120-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2012.05.006

Chilingar, G.V., Buryakovsky, L.A., Eremenko, N.A. & Gorfunkel, M.V. (2005). Geology and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas, Elsevier Science & Technology, 390p.

Dunham, R.J. (1962). Classification of Carbonate Rocks According to Depositional Texture. In: Hamm, W.E. (Eds.), Classification of Carbonate Rocks, AAPG Memoir 1, 108-121.

Erbacher, J., Huber, B.T., Norris, R.D. & Markey, M. (2001). Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period. Nature 409, 325-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/35053041

Espilalié, J., Laporte, J.L., Madec, M., Marquis, F., Leplant, P. & Paulet, J. (1977). Méthode rapide de characterisation des roches mères, de leur potentiel petrolier et de leur degré d'évolution. Revue I. Fr. Pétrol. 32(1), 23-45. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:1977002

Espitalié, J., Deroo, G. & Marquis, F. (1986). La pyrolyse Rock-Eval et ses applications. Revue I. Fr. Pétrol., 41, 73-89. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:1986003

Folk, R.L. (1974). Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin, 182p.

Garner, A.H. (1926). Suggested nomenclature and correlation of the geological formations in Venezuela. Am. I. Min. Metall. Eng. Trans., 1, 677-684.

Geel, C., Schulz, H.-M., Booth, P., de Wit, M. & Horsfield, B. (2013). Shale gas characteristics of Permian black shales in South Africa: results from recent drilling in the Ecca Group (Eastern Cape). Energy Procedia, 40, 256-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.030

Gorin, G.E. & Feist-Bukhardt, S. (1990). Organic facies of Lower to Middle Jurassic sediments in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland. Rev. Paleobot. Palyno., 65, 349-355.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(90)90085-W.

Govea, C. and Aguilera, H. (1985). Cuencas sedimentarias de Colombia. II Simposio Bolivariano - Exploración en Cuencas Subandinas, Bogotá, 93p. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609-pdb.113.013

Hedberg, H.D. & Sass, L.C. (1937). Synopsis de las formaciones geológicas de la parte occidental de la Cuenca de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Servicio Técnico de Geología y Minería, Caracas, Boletín de Geología y Mineralogía (Venezuela), 2-4, 83-84.

Hubach, E. (1957). Estratigrafía de la Sabana de Bogotá y alrededores. Instituto Geológico Nacional, Boletín Geológico 5(2), 93-112.

Ingersoll, R.V., Bullard, T.F., Ford, R.L., Grimm, J.P., Pickle, J.D. & Sares, S.W. (1984). The effect of grain size on detrital modes: A test of the Gazzi-Dickinson point-counting method. J. Sediment. Petrol., 54, 103-116. https://doi.org/10.1306/212F83B9-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D

Juliao, T., Suárez-Ruiz, I., Marquez, R. & Ruiz, B. (2015). The role of solid bitumen in the development of porosity in shale oil reservoir rocks of the Upper Cretaceous in Colombia. Int. J. Coal Geol., 147-148, 126-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2015.07.001

Kretz, R. (1983). Symbols for rock-forming minerals. Am. Mineral., 68, 277-279.

Law, B.E. & Curtis, J.B. (2002). Introduction to unconventional petroleum systems. AAPG Bull., 86(11). 1851-1852. https://doi.org/10.1306/61EEDDA0-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Ma, Y.Z. & Holditch, S.A. (2016). Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook: Evaluation and Development. Elsevier, USA. 84pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802238-2.00019-5

Mann, U. & Stein, R. (1997). Organic facies variations, source rock potential, and sea level changes in Cretaceous black shales of the Quebrada Ocal, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia. AAPG Bul., 81(4), 556-576.

McCarthy, K., Niemann, M., Palmowski, D., Peters, K. & Stankiewicz, C. (2011). La geoquímica básica del petróleo para la evaluación de las rocas generadoras: Oilfield Rev., 23 (2), 35-47.

Montgomery, S. (1992). Petroleum potential of Upper and Middle Magdalena basins, Colombia. Petrol. Frontiers, 9(3), 67p.

Morales, L.G., Podesta, D.J., Hatfield, W.C., Tanner, H., Jones, S.H., Barker, M.H., O'Donoghue, D.J., Mohler, C.E., Dubois, E.P., Jacobs, C. & Goss, C.R. (1958). General Geology and oil occurrences of the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia. In: Weeks, L.G. (Eds.), Habitat of Oil Symposium. AAPG 41, 641-695.

Nuñez-Betelu, L, & Baceta J.I., (1994). Basics and Application of Rock-Eval/TOC Pyrolysis: an example from the uppermost Paleocene/lowermost Eocene in the Basque Basin, Western Pyrenees. Natur Zientziak 46, 43-62.

Maughan, E.K., Zambrano, F., Mojica, P., Abozaglo, J., Pachon, F. & Duran, R. (1979). Paleontologic and stratigraphic relations of phosphate beds in Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia. U.S. Geological Survey, 101p. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr791525

Mayorga, L.A. & Piamonte, D.A. (2015). Caracterización de yacimientos tipo Shale Gas y Oíl Shale de la Formación La Luna en el flanco Oriental de la Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena (VMM), Santander, Colombia. Tesis de Pregrado, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Naranjo, V., Duque, N. & Moreno, N. (2009). Definición de eventos diagenéticos y carga de hidrocarburos mediante estudios de petrología en La Formación Rosablanca, Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena. 10th Simposio Bolivariano - Exploracion Petrolera en las Cuencas Subandinas. Resumen. ACGGP.

Pacheco-Sintura, P.A., Cardona-Molina, A. & Cortés, F.B. (2015). Compositional characterization and storage capacity of shale samples from La Luna and Conejo Formations (Middle Magdalena basin and the Eastern Cordillera): Implications for evaluation of cretaceous shale gas in Colombia. Bol. Cie. Tierra, 37, 45-53.
https://doi.org/10.15446/rbct.n37.43685

Perez-Tellez, G. (1994). The La Luna petroleum system of Colombia. Fisrt Jt, AAPG/AMPG Research Conference, 5pp.

Peters, K.E. (1986). Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source rock using programmed pyrolysis. AAPG Bulletin, 70(3), 318-329. https://doi.org/10.1306/94885688-1704-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Potter, P.E., Maynard, J.B. & Depetris, J.P. (2005). Mud and Mudstones. Springer-Verlag, Germany., 297pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/b138571

Poulsen, Ch.J., Barron, E.J., Arthur, M.A. & Peterson, W.H. (2001). Response of the mid-Cretaceous global oceanic circulation to tectonic and CO2 forcings. Paleoceanogr., 16(6), 576-592. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000579

Rangel, A., Giraldo, B., Magoon, L., Sarmiento, L.F., Bartels, H., Mora, C., Cordoba, F., Luna, O. & Reyes, J.P. (1996). Oil potential of the Cretacic megasequence and associated oil families in the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

Rangel, A., Parra, P. & Niño, C. (2000b). The La Luna Formation: chemostratigraphy and organic facies in the Middle Magdalena Basin. Org. Geochem. 31(12), 1267- 1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00127-3

Ramon, J.C. & Dzou, L.I. (1999). Petroleum geochemistry of the Middle Magdalena Valley: Colombia. Org. Geochem., 30(4), 249-266. Rey, O., Simo, J.A & Lorente, M.A. (2004). A record of long and short-term environmental and climatic change during OAE3: La Luna Formation, Late Cretaceous (Santonian- early Campanian), Venezuela. Sediment. Geol., 170 (1-2), 85-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2004.06.006

Rodriguez, J.C. (2013). Challenges and opportunities for the development of Shale resources in Colombia. MSc thesis, The University of Texas, Austin.

Ross, D.J.K. & Bustin, R.M. (2008). Characterizing the shale gas resource potential of Devonian-Mississippian strata in the Western Canada sedimentary basin: Application of an integrated formation evaluation. AAPG Bulletin, 92(1), 87-125. https://doi.org/10.1306/09040707048

Royero, J. & Clavijo, J. (2001). Mapa Geológico generalizado departamento de Santander. Escala 1: 400.000. Informe INGEOMINAS, 92pp.

Russell, D.A. & Paesler, M.A. (2003). Environments of MidCretaceous Saharan dinosaurs. Cretaceous Res., 24(5), 569-588. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6671(03)00072-7

Schamel, S. (1991). Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia. In: Biddle, K.T. (Eds.), Active Margin Basins. AAPG Memoir, 52, 283-301.

Schieber, J., Southard, J. & Thaisen, K. (2007). Accretion of Mudstone Beds from Migrating Floccule Ripples. Science, 318 (5857), 1760-1763. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1147001

Slatt, R.M. (2011). Important Geological Properties of Unconventional Resource Shales. Cent. Eur. J. Geosci., 3, 435-448. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13533-011-0042-2

Snowdon, L.R. (1989). Organic matter properties and thermal evolution. In: Short course in burial diagenesis. Hutcheon, I.E. (Eds.). Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Handbook, 15, 39-40.

Sorkhabi, R. (2009). The Mid-Cretaceous Source Rock Enigma. Geo Expro, 6(5), 24-30.

Talukdar, S., Gallango, O. & Ruggiero, A. (1985). Formaciones La Luna y Querecual: rocas madres de petróleo. En: Espejo, A., Ríos, J.H., De Bellizzia, N.P., De Pardo, A.S. (Eds.), Memoria: VI Congreso Geológico Venezolano, Memorias. Sociedad Venezolana de Geológos, Caracas, 3606-3642.

Tian, H., Pan, L., Xiao, X., Wilkins, R.W.T., Meng, Z. & Huang, B. (2013). A preliminary study on the pore characterization of Lower Silurian black shales in the Chuandong Thrust Fold Belt, southwestern China using low pressure N2 adsorption and FE-SEM methods. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 48, 8-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.07.008

Torres, E.J. (2013). Unconventional gas shale assessment of La Luna Formation in the central and south areas of the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia. MSc thesis. University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Torres, E.J., Slatt, R.M., Philp, P., O'Brien, N.R. & Rodriguez, H.L. (2012). Characterization of the Cretaceous La Luna Formation as a shale gas system, Middle Magdalena Basin, Colombia. Houston Geological Society. Poster.

Torres, E.J., Slatt, R.M., Philp, P., O'Brien, N.R. & Rodriguez, H.L. (2015). Unconventional Resources Assessment of La Luna Formation in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia. AAPG Annual Convention & Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 2015.

Villamil, T. (1999), Campanian-Miocene tectonostratigraphy, depocenter evolution and basin development of Colombia and western Venezuela. Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol., 153, 239-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(99)00075-9

Young, A., Monaghan, P.H. & Schweisberger, R.T. (1977). Calculation of ages of hydrocarbons in oils - Physical chemistry applied to petroleum geochemistry I. AAPG Bulletin, 61(4), 573-600. https://doi.org/10.1306/C1EA3D8E-16C9-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Zumberge, J.E. (1980). Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations of bacterially degraded oils and Cretaceous outcrops from Colombia, South America (Abstract). Paris, International Geological Congress, 26, p. 806.

Zumberge, J.E. (1984). Source Rocks of the La Luna Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia. In: Palacas J. (Eds.), Petroleum Geochemistry and Source Rock Potential of Carbonate Rocks. AAPG Studies in Geology, 18, 127-133.
How to Cite
Casadiego Quintero, E., & Ríos Reyes, C. A. (2016). Lithofacies analysis and depositional environment of the Galembo member of La Luna formation. CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología Y Futuro, 6(4), 37-56. https://doi.org/10.29047/01225383.02

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Published
2016-12-15
Section
Scientific and Technological Research Articles

More on this topic