The role of polar organic components in dynamic crude oil adsorption on sandstones and carbonates

Keywords: Wettability, Sandstones, Carbonates, Polar organic components, Adsorption, Smart Water, Dynamic adsorption, Crude oil, Capillary forces, Waterflooding, EOR

Abstract

An appropriated wettability characterization is crucial for the successful implementation of waterflooding operations. Understanding how crude oil adsorption takes place on different mineral surfaces and how these processes impact reservoir wettability are essential aspects that can help unlock and produce large underground oil reserves.

Polar organic components (POC) present in crude oil are surface-active molecules with high affinity towards mineral surfaces. POCs are quantified by the acid and base numbers (AN and BN) with units of mgKOH/g. The POC adsorption behavior is highly influenced by the type of minerals and brines present in the reservoir system.

This study aims to shed light onto the most important features of oil adsorption on carbonates and sandstones mineral surfaces; particular attention is given to the role of acidic components. Therefore, outcrop sandstone and carbonate materials were used. The sandstone material contains various silicates, including quartz, Illite clay, and feldspars. The carbonate outcrop material came from the Stevns Klint quarry in Denmark and is considered a very pure calcium carbonate with minimum silicate impurities.

Dynamic adsorption tests were performed at 50°C by injecting low asphaltene crude oils into core plugs, and AN and BN values of the effluent oil samples were measured and compared with the influent oil values. Furthermore, spontaneous imbibition (SI) tests were performed to assess the wettability impact of crude oil injection in oil flooded cores.

The results showed that after crude oil injection, the cores became mix-wet. Confirmation of a reduction in capillary forces and a shift towards a less water-wet state was reported for both mineralogies, i.e., sandstones and carbonates. The acidic polar components had a substantial impact on carbonates wettability, while on sandstones, the experiments suggested that acidic polar components had a lower impact on wettability than that observed in the basic polar components.

References

Austad, T., RezaeiDoust, A., & Puntervold, T. (2010). Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs, In SPE improved oil recovery symposium. SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. 2010: Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129767-MS

Zhang, P., Tweheyo, M. T., & Austad, T. (2007). Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of seawater into chalk: Impact of the potential determining ions: Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42-. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 301(1-3), 199-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058

Morrow, N., & Buckley, J. (2011). Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 63(05), 106-112. https://doi.org/10.2118/129421-JPT

Torrijos, I. D. P., Puntervold, T., Strand, S., Austad, T., Tran, V. V., & Olsen, K. (2017). Impact of temperature on the low salinity EOR effect for sandstone cores containing reactive plagioclase. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 156(102-109). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.05.014

Shariatpanahi, S. F., Strand, S., & Austad, T. (2011). Initial wetting properties of carbonate oil reservoirs: effect of the temperature and presence of sulfate in formation water. Energy & Fuels, 2011. 25(7) 3021-3028. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef200033h

RezaeiDoust, A., Puntervold, T., & Austad, T. (2011). Chemical verification of the EOR mechanism by using low saline/smart water in sandstone. Energy & Fuels, 25(5), 2151-2162. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef200215y

Kaminsky, R., & Radke, C. J. (1997). Asphaltenes, Water Films, and Wettability Reversal. SPE Journal, 2(04), 485-493. https://doi.org/10.2118/39087-PA

Buckley, J. S., Liu, Y., & Monsterleet, S. (1998). Mechanisms of Wetting Alteration by Crude Oils. SPE journal, 3(01) 54-61. https://doi.org/10.2118/37230-PA.

Anderson, W. G. (1986). Wettability literature survey- part 1: rock/oil/brine interactions and the effects of core handling on wettability. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1986. 38(10), 1125-1144. https://doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA

Dubey, S. T., & Doe, P. H. (1993). Base Number and Wetting Properties of Crude Oils. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 1993. 8(03), 195-200. https://doi.org/10.2118/22598-PA

Cuiec, L. (1984). Rock/Crude-Oil Interactions and Wettability: An Attempt To Understand Their Interrelation, In SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers: Houston, Texas. https://doi.org/10.2118/13211-MS

Jewell, D. M., Weber, J. H., Bunger, J. W., Plancher, H., & Latham, D. R. (1972). Ion-exchange, coordination, and adsorption chromatographic separation of heavy-end petroleum distillates. Analytical Chemistry, 44(8), 1391-1395. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60316a003.

Fan, T., Wang, J., & Buckley, J. S. (2002), Evaluating Crude Oils by SARA Analysis, In SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers: Tulsa, Oklahoma. https://doi.org/10.2118/75228-MS

Buckley, J. S., & Morrow, N. R. (1990), Characterization of Crude Oil Wetting Behavior by Adhesion Tests. In SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/20263-MS

Aksulu, H., Håmsø, D., Strand, S., Puntervold, T., & Austad, T. (2012), Evaluation of Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery Effects in Sandstone: Effects of the Temperature and pH Gradient. Energy & Fuels, 26(6), 3497-3503. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef300162n

Puntervold, T. (2008), Waterflooding of carbonate reservoirs - EOR by wettability alteration(PhD Thesis). University of Stavanger, Norway.

Amott, E. (1959), Observations Relating to the Wettability of Porous Rock. Petroleum Transactions, AIME, 216, 156-162. https://doi.org/10.2118/1167-G

Denekas, M. O., Mattax, C. C., & Davis, G. T. (1959), Effects of Crude Oil Components on Rock Wettability. Petroleum Transactions, AIME, 216(01), 330-333. https://doi.org/10.2118/1276-G

Gloton, M. P., Turmine, M., Mayaffre, A., Letellier, P., & Toulhoat, H. (1992), Study of asphaltenes adsorption on mineral surfaces by contact angle measurements: kinetics of wettability changes. Physical Chemistry of Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Production, 89-96.

Cuiec, L.E. (1991). Evaluation of reservoir wettability and its effect on oil recovery. In Morrow, N.R. (Ed.), Interfacial Phenomena in Petroleum Recovery (pp. 319-370). New York, United States: Marcel Decker.

Fan, T., & Buckley, J. S. (2007), Acid Number Measurements Revisited. SPE Journal, 12(04) 496-500. https://doi.org/10.2118/99884-PA

Benner, F. C., & Bartel, F. E. (1941), The Effect Of Polar Impurities Upon Capillary And Surface Phenomena In Petroleum Production, In Drilling and Production Practice, American Petroleum Institute.

Burkhardt, J. A., Ward, M. B., & McLean, R. H. (1958, January), Effect of Core Surfacing and Mud Filtrate Flushing on Reliability of Core Analysis Conducted on Fresh Cores, In Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. Society of Petroleum Engineers: Houston, Texas. https://doi.org/10.2118/1139-G.

González, G., & Moreira, M. B. (1991), The wettability of mineral surfaces containing adsorbed asphaltene. Colloids and Surfaces, 58(3), 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-6622(91)80229-H.

Hjelmeland, O. S., & Larrondo, L. E. (1986), Experimental investigation of the effects of temperature, pressure, and crude oil composition on interfacial properties. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 1(04), 321-328 https://doi.org/10.2118/12124-PA.

Akhlaq, M. S., Kessel, D., & Dornow, W. (1996), Separation and chemical characterization of wetting crude oil compounds. Journal of colloid interface science, 180(2), 309-314. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1996.0308.

Hopkins, P. A., Strand, S., Puntervold, T., Austad, T., Dizaj, S. R., Waldeland, J. O., & Simonsen, J. C. (2016), The adsorption of polar components onto carbonate surfaces and the effect on wetting. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 147, 381-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.08.028

Mjos, J. E. S., Strand, S., Puntervold, T., & Gaybaliyev, H. (2018), Effect of Initial Wetting on Smart Water Potential in Carbonates, In SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Muscat, Oman. https://doi.org/10.2118/190414-MS

Puntervold, T., Strand, S., & Austad, T. (2007), Water Flooding of Carbonate Reservoirs: Effects of a Model Base and Natural Crude Oil Bases on Chalk Wettability. Energy & Fuels, 21(3), 1606-1616. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef060624b.

Standnes, D. C., & Austad, T. (2000), Wettability alteration in chalk: 1. Preparation of core material and oil properties. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 28(3), 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00083-8.

Skauge, A., Standal, S., Boe, S. O., Skauge, T., & Blokhus, A. M. (1999), Effects of Organic Acids and Bases, and Oil Composition on Wettability, In SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers: Houston, Texas. https://doi.org/10.2118/56673-MS.

Zhang, P., & Austad, T. (2005), The Relative Effects of Acid Number and Temperature on Chalk Wettability, In SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. Society of Petroleum Engineers: The Woodlands, Texas. https://doi.org/10.2118/92999-MS.

Buckley, J. S. (1999), Evaluation of reservoir wettability and its effect on oil recovery. National Petroleum Technology Office, Tulsa, OK (US). https://doi.org/10.2172/8240

Morrow, N. R., Cram, P. J., & McCaffery, F. G. (1973), Displacement Studies in Dolomite With Wettability Control by Octanoic Acid. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, 13(04), 221-232. https://doi.org/10.2118/3993-PA.

Thomas, M. M., Clouse, J. A., & Longo, J. M. (1993), Adsorption of organic compounds on carbonate minerals: 1. Model compounds and their influence on mineral wettability. Chemical geology, 109(1-4), 201-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(93)90070-Y.

Frykman, P., Jacobsen, F., & Surlyk, F. (2004), The Chalk at Stevns Klint - a Reservoir Chalk Analogue?: Unpublished field trip guidebook. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland and Copenhagen University.

Standnes, D. C., & Austad, T. (2000), Wettability alteration in chalk. 1. Preparation of core material and oil properties. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 28(3), 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00083-8.

Hopkins, P. A., Omland, I., Layti, F., Strand, S., Puntervold, T., & Austad, T. (2017), Crude Oil Quantity and Its Effect on Chalk Surface Wetting. Energy & Fuels, 31(5), 4663-4669. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02914.

Madsen, L., & Ida, L. (1998), Adsorption of Carboxylic Acids on Reservoir Minerals From Organic and Aqueous Phase. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 1(01), 47-51 . https://doi.org/10.2118/37292-PA.

Reed, M. G. (1968), Retention of Crude Oil Bases by Clay-Containing Sandstone. Clays and Clays and clay minerals, 16(2), 173-178. https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1968.0160208.

Burgos, W. D., Pisutpaisal, N., Mazzarese, M. C., & Chorover, J. (2002), Adsorption of Quinoline to Kaolinite and Montmorillonite. Environmental engineering science, 19(2), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1089/10928750252953697.

Fogden, A., & Lebedeva, E. V. (2012), Changes in Wettability State Due to Waterflooding. Petrophysics, 53(06), 420-429.

Mamonov, A., Kvandal, O. A., Strand, S., & Puntervold, T. (2019), Adsorption of polar organic components onto sandstone rock minerals and its effect on wettability and enhanced oil recovery potential by Smart Water. Energy & Fuels, 2019, 33(7), 5954-5960. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b00101.

Puntervold, T., Strand, S., & Austad, T. (2009), Co-injection of seawater and produced water to improve oil recovery from fractured North Sea chalk oil reservoirs. Energy & fuels, 23(5), 2527-2536. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef801023u.

Piñerez Torrijos, I. D., Puntervold, T., Strand, S., Austad, T., Abdullah, H. I., & Olsen, K. (2016), Experimental study of the response time of the low-salinity enhanced oil recovery effect during secondary and tertiary low-salinity waterflooding. Energy & Fuels, 30(6), 4733-4739. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00641.

Puntervold, T., Strand, S., & Austad, T. (2007), New method to prepare outcrop chalk cores for wettability and oil recovery studies at low initial water saturation. Energy & Fuels, 21(6), 3425-3430. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef700323c.

Springer, N., U. Korsbech, and H.K. Aage, Resistivity index measurement without the porous plate: A desaturation technique based on evaporation produces uniform water saturation profiles and more reliable results for tight North Sea chalk, In Paper presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Pau, France.

Andersen, P. Ø., Wang, W., Madland, M. V., Zimmermann, U., Korsnes, R. I., Bertolino, S. R. A., & Gilbricht, S. (2018)., Comparative Study of Five Outcrop Chalks Flooded at Reservoir Conditions: Chemo-mechanical Behaviour and Profiles of Compositional Alteration. Transport in Porous Media, 121(1), 135-181.

Megawati, M., Madland, M. V., & Hiorth, A. (2015), Mechanical and physical behavior of high-porosity chalks exposed to chemical perturbation. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 133, 313-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.06.026.

Røgen, B., & Fabricius, I. L. (2002), Influence of clay and silica on permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs in the North Sea. Petroleum Geoscience, 8(3), 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1144/petgeo.8.3.287.

Skovbjerg, L. L., Hassenkam, T., Makovicky, E., Hem, C. P., Yang, M., Bovet, N., & Stipp, S. L. S. (2012), Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 99, 57-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2012.05.037.

Strand, S., Hjuler, M. L., Torsvik, R., Pedersen, J. I., Madland, M. V., & Austad, T. (2007), Wettability of chalk: impact of silica, clay content and mechanical properties. Petroleum Geoscience, 13(1), 69-80. https://doi.org/10.1144/1354-079305-696.

Yang, H. S. (2018), Optimal Core Restoration and the Effect of Initial Wetting on Oil Recovery in Chalk (Master's thesis). University of Stavanger. Noruega.

Hopkins, P. A., Walrond, K., Strand, S., Puntervold, T., Austad, T., & Wakwaya, A. (2016), Adsorption of acidic crude oil components onto outcrop chalk at different wetting conditions during both dynamic adsorption and aging processes. Energy & Fuels, 30(9), 7229-7235. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01583.

How to Cite
Piñerez Torrijos, I. D., Mamonov, A., Strand, S., & Puntervold, T. (2020). The role of polar organic components in dynamic crude oil adsorption on sandstones and carbonates. CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología Y Futuro, 10(2), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.29047/01225383.251

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Published
2020-12-17
Section
Scientific and Technological Research Articles
Crossref Cited-by logo

More on this topic