Particle matter from a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha curcas oil biodiesel and ultra-low sulphur diesel
Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels due to their potential to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Research in this field has focused on the study of the emissions of light duty vehicles. However, particle matter and gaseous emissions emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled by Jatropha Oil Biodiesel (JOB) and Ultra-Low Sulphur Diesel (ULSD) has not been studied. The objective of this study is to explore the performance and emission levels of a Cummins 4-stroke, 4.8 liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, equipped with a cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). There was a substantial reduction by the use of JOB in unburned hydrocarbons (- 45%), carbon monoxide (- 75%), and particulate matter (- 25%) compared to emission from diesel fuel. At mid and high loads, NOx emissions were higher for JOB compared to ULSD. Most of the particles (64%) for ULSD were in a range of between 40 and 560 nm. On the other hand, most of the particles (94%) for JCB mode were between 6 and 40 nm.
In the range between 6 and 40 nm, mass mean diameters in ULSD were 34.4, 34.7 and 33.3 nm while for JOB they were 21.3, 18.2 and 20.1 nm for 100, 50 for a 10% load, respectively.
Agarwal, D. & Agarwal, A. K. (2007). Performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Applied Thermal Eng., 27(13), 2314 – 2323.
Babu, A. & Devaradjane, G. (2003). Vegetable oils and their derivatives as fuels for CI engines: An overview. SAE Technical Paper, 01-0767: 1-14.
Bagley, S., Gratz, L., Johnson, J. & McDonald, J. (1998). Effeects of an oxidation catalytic converter and a biodiesel fuel on the chemical, mutagenic, and particle size characteristics of emissions from a diesel engine. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(9), 1183-1191.
Chauhana, B., Kumara, N. & Muk, H. (2012). A study on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel oil and its blends. Energy, 37(1), 616-622.
Elango, T. & Senthilkumar, T. (2011). Combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha and diesel oil blends. Thermal Science, 15(4), 1205-1214.
Graboski, M. & Mccormick, R. (1998). Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 24(2), 125-164.
Graboski, M., McCormick, R., Alleman, T. & Herring, A. (2003). The effect of biodiesel composition on engine emissions from a DDC series 60 diesel engine. Technical Report, NREL/SR-510-31461. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Health Effects Institute. (2002). Research directions to improve estimates of human exposure and risk from diesel exhaust. Heywood, J., (1989).
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. New York: Mac Graw Hill.
Jung, H., Kittelson, D. & Zachariah, M., (2006). Characteristics of SME biodiesel fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation. Environ. Sci.Technol., 40(16), 4949-4955.
Karavalakis, G., Stournas, S. & Bakeas, E. (2009). Light vehicle regulated and unregulated emissions from different biodiesels. Science of the Total Env., 407(10), 3338-3346.
Knothe, G., Krahl, J. & Van Gerpen, J. (2010). The Biodiesel Handbook second edition. New York: AOCS Press.
Krahl, J., Munack, A., Schröder, O., Stein, H. & Bünger, J. (2003). Influence of biodiesel and different designed diesel fuels on the exhaust gas emissions and health effects. SAE Transactions, 112(4), 2447-2455.
Kyu, H., Gu, H., & Sik, C., (2008). Spray and combustion characteristics of biodiesel/diesel blended fuel in a direct injection common rail diesel engine. J. Eng. Gas. Turb. Power, 130(3), 1123-1130.
Lin, Y. C., Tsai, C. H., Yang, C. R., Wu, C. J., Wu, T. Y. & Chang-Chien, G. P. (2008). Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends. Atmosph. Environment, 42(27), 6679-6688.
Mazumdar, B. & Kumar, A. (2008). Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of biodiesel (waste cooking oil methyl ester) fueled IDI diesel engine. SAE Technical Papers, 2008-01-1384.
McCormick, R., Tennandt, C., Hayes, R., Black, S., Ireland, J., McDaniel, T., Williams, A. & Frailey, M. (2005). Regulated emissions from biodiesel tested in heavy-duty engines meeting 2004 emission standards. SAE Technical Papers, 2005-01-2200.
McDonald, J., Purcell, D., McClure, B. & Kittelson, D. (1995). Emissions characteristics of soy methyl ester fuels in an IDI compression ignition engine. SAE Technical Papers. 950400.
Ozsezen, A. N., Canakci, M. & Sayin, C. (2008). Effects of biodiesel from used frying palm oil on the performance, injection, and combustion characteristics of an indirect injection diesel engine. Energy and Fuels, 22(2), 1297- 1305.
Pope, C., Thun, M., Namboodriri, M., Dockery, D., Evans, J., Speizer, F. & Heath, C. (1995). Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 151(3), 669-674.
Pramanik, K. (2003). Properties and use of Jatropha Curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine. Renewable Energy, 25(2), 239-248.
Prasad, C., Krishna, M., Reddy, C. & Mohan, K. (2012). Perfor-mance evaluation of non-edible vegetable oils as substi-tute fuels in low heat rejection diesel engines. J. of Automobile Eng., 214(2), 181-187.
Purcell, D., Mcclure, B., Mcdonald, J. & Basu, H. (1996). Transient testing of soy methyl ester fuels in an indirect injection, compression ignition engine. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73(3), 381-388.
Schröder, O., Krahl, J., Munack, A., Krahl, J. & Bünger, J. (1999). Environmental and health effects caused by the use of biodiesel. SAE Technical Paper. 01-3561.
Sureshkumar, K., Velraj, R. & Ganesan, R. (2008). Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. Renew Energy, 33(10), 2294-2302.
Szybist, J., Boehman, A., Taylor, J. & McCormick, R. (2005). Evaluation of formulation strategies to eliminate the biodiesel NOx effect. Fuel Processing Techn., 86(10), 1109-1126.
Tsolakis, A. (2006). Effects on particle-size distribution from the diesel engine operating on RME-Biodiesel with EGR. Energy and Fuels, 20(4), 1418-1424.
Turrio-Baldassarri, L., Battistelli, C., Conti, L., Crebelli, R., de Berardis, B., Iamiceli, A., Gambino, M. & Iannaccone, S. (2004). Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and biodiesel blends. Science of the Total Environment, 327(1-3), 147-162.