SEPARACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE RESINAS Y ASFALTENOS PROVENIENTES DEL CRUDO CASTILLA. EVALUACIÓN DE SU INTERACCIÓN MOLECULAR
The study of resins and asphaltenes, the heaviest fractions of oil, has become an area of interest due to the abundance of heavy crude oils in Colombia and Latin America. We studied the chemical composition of the heavy fractions of Castilla crude oil, evaluated some of its molecular parameters and found evidence of the interaction between the resin extracted from the crude with the asphaltenes of the original crude. With this objective, we carried out at the pilot plant level precipitation of the resin-asphaltene (R-A) aggregate by adding and mixing under controlled conditions, a paraffin solvent, from the Apiay refinery, called Apiasol. By extracting Soxhlet with the same solvent, resin I of aggregate R-A was separated. Resin II defined as the soluble fraction that is part of the maltenes, was separated from the deasphalted crude by open column chromatography, using alumina as support, according to the SAR method (Saturated, Aromatcis, Resins). The fractions of resins and the asphaltenes obtained, were characterized by: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), FT-IR, DRX, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S), metal content (Ni and V), distribution of molecular weight by GPC, and average molecular weight by VPO. The results obtained show evidence that resin I which is part of the aggregate has less average molecular weight than resin II which is present in the fraction of maltenes. In addition, some changes were found in the elementary analysis of among the resins. On the one hand, and taking into account the existing theories of molecular interactions among these fractions, it was found that the resins I separated from the R-A aggregate, when added to the crude, they stabilize their asphaltenes. This evaluation was carried out by analyzing the flocculation point of the crude and its mixtures with 1,9% and 3,8% of resin I, when they are titrated with a pricipitating agent in an NIR cell that works with high pressure and temperature.
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