Heavy Oil and High-Temperature Polymer EOR Applications
Polymer flooding represents the most common chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) method used at commercial scale. In this process, the polymeric solutions (generally hydrolyzed polyacrylamide - HPAM) are injected to improve the oil/water mobility ratio (M). However, due to mechanical, chemical, bio, and thermal degradation, polymer viscosity losses can occur, causing a negative impact on oil sweep efficiency. In this case, biopolymers seem to be promising candidates in EOR applications with special structural characteristics, which result in excellent stability in harsh environments with high temperatures, ionic forces, and shear stresses. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of Scleroglucan (SG) and a commercial sulfonated polyacrylamide (ATBS) in synthetic brine, representative of a Colombian heavy-oil field. The effects of ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear degradation effects on polymer viscosity were also evaluated. For SG, the results reflect its tolerance to high salinities (0-5%wt), ionic strengths (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), shear rates (0-300,000 s-1), temperatures (30, 50, 80 and 100 °C), and pH variations (3-10). The biopolymer was capable of preserving its viscous properties and stability after of the effect of these variables. Finally, the target viscosity (set as 17 cp) was achieved with a lower concentration (2.7 times) than the ATBS polymer tested.
A. Al Adasani and B. Bai, "Analysis of EOR projects and updated screening criteria," Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 79, pp. 10-24, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.07.005.
R. A.-M. Al-Mjeni, S. Arora, P. K. Cherukupalli, J. N. M. V. Wunnik, J. Edwards, B. J. Felber, et al., "Has the time come for EOR?," Oilfield Review, 2010. 22, 16–35.
E. J. Manrique, C. P. Thomas, R. Ravikiran, M. Izadi Kamouei, M. Lantz, J. L. Romero, et al., "EOR: current status and opportunities," in SPE improved oil recovery symposium, 2010. https://doi.org/10.2118/130113-MS.
R.-H. Castro-Garcia, G.-A. Maya-Toro, R. Jimenez-Diaz, H.-I. Quintero-Perez, V.-M. Díaz-Guardia, K.-M. Colmenares-Vargas, et al., "Polymer flooding to improve volumetric sweep efficiency in waterflooding processes," CT&F-Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro, vol. 6, pp. 71-90, 2016. https://doi.org/10.29047/01225383.10.
K. S. Sorbie, Polymer-improved oil recovery: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9780216926936.
A. Abidin, T. Puspasari, and W. Nugroho, "Polymers for enhanced oil recovery technology," Procedia Chemistry, vol. 4, pp. 11-16, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2012.06.002.
G.-A. Maya-Toro, R.-H. Castro-García, R. Jiménez-Díaz, and S.-F. Muñoz-Navarro, "Analysis of mixing parameters for polymer gels used for the correction of water injection profiles," CT&F-Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro, vol. 6, pp. 43-68, 2015. https://doi.org/10.29047/01225383.26.
R. Seright, "Potential for polymer flooding reservoirs with viscous oils," SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, vol. 13, pp. 730-740, 2010. https://doi.org/10.2118/129899-PA.
R. S. Seright, A. Campbell, P. Mozley, and P. Han, "Stability of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides at elevated temperatures in the absence of divalent cations," Spe Journal, vol. 15, pp. 341-348, 2010. https://doi.org/10.2118/121460-PA.
R. S. Seright, J. M. Seheult, and T. Talashek, "Injectivity characteristics of EOR polymers," in SPE annual technical conference and exhibition, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2118/115142-MS.
E. Manrique, M. Ahmadi, and S. Samani, "Historical and recent observations in polymer floods: an update review," CT&F-Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro, vol. 6, pp. 17-48, 2017. https://doi.org/10.29047/01225383.72.
K. Liang, P. Han, Q. Chen, X. Su, and Y. Feng, "Comparative Study on Enhancing Oil Recovery under High Temperature and High Salinity: Polysaccharides Versus Synthetic Polymer," ACS Omega, vol. 4, pp. 10620-10628, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b00717.
W. Pu, C. Shen, B. Wei, Y. Yang, and Y. Li, "A comprehensive review of polysaccharide biopolymers for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from flask to field," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 61, pp. 1-11, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2017.12.034.
E. Sandvik and J. Maerker, "Application of xanthan gum for enhanced oil recovery," in ACS Symp. Ser, 1977, pp. 242-264. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1977-0045.ch019.
M. A. Al-Saleh, A. A. Yussuf, M. A. Jumaa, A. Hammoud, and T. Al-Shammari, "Biopolymer Solution Evaluation Methodology: Thermal and Mechanical Assessment for Enhanced Oil Recovery with High Salinity Brines," Processes, vol. 7, p. 339, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7060339.
B. Leonhardt, B. Ernst, S. Reimann, A. Steigerwald, and F. Lehr, "Field testing the polysaccharide schizophyllan: results of the first year," in SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, 2014. https://doi.org/10.2118/169032-MS.
D. Prasad, B. Ernst, G. Incera, B. Leonhardt, S. Reimann, E. Mahler, et al., "Field Testing the Polysaccharide Schizophyllan-Single Well Test Design and Current Results," in IOR 2017-19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201700238.
B. Kalpakci, Y. Jeans, N. Magri, and J. Padolewski, "Thermal stability of scleroglucan at realistic reservoir conditions," in SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, 1990. https://doi.org/10.2118/20237-MS.
T. Jensen, M. Kadhum, B. Kozlowicz, E. Sumner, J. Malsam, F. Muhammed, et al., "Chemical EOR Under Harsh Conditions: Scleroglucan As A Viable Commercial Solution," in SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 2018. https://doi.org/10.2118/190216-MS.
B. Kozlowicz, F. Muhammed, M. Kadhum, M. Khambete, T. Jensen, E. Sumner, et al., "Qualification and Field Injection of Scleroglucan," in IOR 2019–20th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201900161.
M. H. Akstinat, "Polymers for enhanced oil recovery in reservoirs of extremely high salinities and high temperatures," in SPE Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry Symposium, 1980. https://doi.org/10.2118/8979-MS.
R. Rivenq, A. Donche, and C. Nolk, "Improved scleroglucan for polymer flooding under harsh reservoir conditions," SPE reservoir engineering, vol. 7, pp. 15-20, 1992. https://doi.org/10.2118/19635-PA.
P. Davison and E. Mentzer, "Polymer flooding in North Sea reservoirs," Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, vol. 22, pp. 353-362, 1982. https://doi.org/10.2118/9300-PA.
API, Recommended Practices for Evaluation of Polymers Used in Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations. American Petroleum Institute - API Recommended Practice (RP 63). First Edition, June 1, 1990. 86 p.
R. S. Seright, K. E. Wavrik, G. Zhang, and A. M. AlSofi, "Stability and Behavior in Carbonate Cores for New Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Polymers at Elevated Temperatures in Hard Saline Brines," SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2118/200324-MS.
P. J. Carreau, "Rheological equations from molecular network theories," Transactions of the Society of Rheology, vol. 16, pp. 99-127, 1972. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.549276.
K. Yasuda, "Investigation of the analogies between viscometric and linear viscoelastic properties of polystyrene fluids," Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 1979. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/16043.
M. Vincendon, "Scleroglucan derivatives: Aromatic carbamates," Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 37, pp. 3187-3192, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0518(19990815)37:16<3187::AID-POLA16>3.0.CO;2-J.
S. Arora, S. Lal, S. Kumar, M. Kumar, and M. Kumar, "Comparative degradation kinetic studies of three biopolymers: chitin, chitosan and cellulose," Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011, 3 (3):188-201.
R. Mansa, L. Dzene, A. Quintela, F. Rocha, and C. Detellier, "Preparation and characterization of novel clay/scleroglucan nanocomposites," Applied Clay Science, vol. 126, pp. 235-244, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.03.021
A. Sabhapondit, A. Borthakur, and I. Haque, "Characterization of acrylamide polymers for enhanced oil recovery," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 87, pp. 1869-1878, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.11491
D. Biswal and R. Singh, "Characterisation of carboxymethyl cellulose and polyacrylamide graft copolymer," Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 57, pp. 379-387, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.04.020
R. P. Chhabra, "Non-Newtonian fluids: an introduction," in Rheology of complex fluids, ed: Springer, 2010, pp. 3-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6494-6_1
H. A. Barnes, "A handbook of elementary rheology. Institute of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics," University of Wales, Institute of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 2000.
A. Samanta, A. Bera, K. Ojha, and A. Mandal, "Effects of alkali, salts, and surfactant on rheological behavior of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solutions," Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 55, pp. 4315-4322, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1021/je100458a
B. Silveira, L. Lopes, and R. Moreno, "Rheological approach of HPAM solutions under harsh conditions for EOR applications," International Journal of Engineering & Technology, IJET-IJENS Vol:16 No:03, 2016.
S. Antignard, B. Giovannetti, T. Divers, G. Dupuis, N. Gaillard, and C. Favero, "Thermal Stability Evaluation of EOR Polymer: Best Practices & Guidelines," in IOR 2019–20th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201900160
J. Farina, F. Sineriz, O. Molina, and N. Perotti, "Isolation and physicochemical characterization of soluble scleroglucan from Sclerotium rolfsii. Rheological properties, molecular weight and conformational characteristics," Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 44, pp. 41-50, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(00)00189-2
S. C. Viñarta, O. D. Delgado, L. I. Figueroa, and J. I. Fariña, "Effects of thermal, alkaline and ultrasonic treatments on scleroglucan stability and flow behavior," Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 94, pp. 496-504, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.063
B. Kozlowicz, T. Jensen, M. Khambete, M. J. Kadhum, F. K. Garshol, E. A. Vik, et al., "Scleroglucan Polymer Stability: Thermal, Chemical, and Microbial," in SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2118/200335-MS.
M. de Melo and E. Lucas, "Characterization and selection of polymers for future research on enhanced oil recovery," Chemistry & Chemical Technology, Vol. 2, 2008.
J. G. Joosten, J. L. McCarthy, and P. N. Pusey, "Dynamic and static light scattering by aqueous polyacrylamide gels," Macromolecules, vol. 24, pp. 6690-6699, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00025a021
M. Sletmoen, E. Geissler, and B. T. Stokke, "Determination of molecular parameters of linear and circular scleroglucan coexisting in ternary mixtures using light scattering," Biomacromolecules, vol. 7, pp. 858-865, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm050990m
F. A. T. Hernandez, J. C. L. Niño, and R. L. Moreno, "Effects of salts and temperature on rheological and viscoelastic behavior of low molecular weight HPAM solutions," Revista Fuentes, vol. 16, pp. 19-35, 2018. https://doi.org/10.18273/revfue.v16n1-2018002
C. Cooper, P. Dubin, A. Kayitmazer, and S. Turksen, "Polyelectrolyte–protein complexes," Current opinion in colloid & interface science, vol. 10, pp. 52-78, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cocis.2005.05.007
T. L. Bluhm, Y. Deslandes, R. H. Marchessault, S. Pérez, and M. Rinaudo, "Solid-state and solution conformation of scleroglucan," Carbohydrate Research, vol. 100, pp. 117-130, 1982. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)81030-7
J. Joanny, L. Leibler, and P. De Gennes, "Effects of polymer solutions on colloid stability," Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition, vol. 17, pp. 1073-1084, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1979.180170615
H. J. Berendsen, "Specific interactions of water with biopolymers," in Water in Disperse Systems, ed: Springer, 1975, pp. 293-330. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6961-6_6
A. Palleschi, G. Bocchinfuso, T. Coviello, and F. Alhaique, "Molecular dynamics investigations of the polysaccharide scleroglucan: first study on the triple helix structure," Carbohydrate research, vol. 340, pp. 2154-2162, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2005.06.026
X. Xin, G. Xu, H. Gong, Y. Bai, and Y. Tan, "Interaction between sodium oleate and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide: A rheological study," Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 326, pp. 1-9, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.05.009
P. Pincus, "Excluded volume effects and stretched polymer chains," Macromolecules, vol. 9, pp. 386-388, 1976. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma60051a002
O. G. Jones and D. J. McClements, "Functional biopolymer particles: design, fabrication, and applications," Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 9, pp. 374-397, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00118.x.
Copyright (c) 2020 CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
This journal uses Crossref's Cited-By and Reference Linking, so that we can display the citations registered in Crossref here.
This document does not have Crossref citations yet.